In non-metro Ontario, workers with lower levels of educational attainment are more likely to work precariously, according to our indicators. The general trend is that those with higher education levels have a higher incidence for the involuntary part-time, low-wage, and self-employed (unincorporated with no paid help) indicators (with some outliers). The exception is for fixed-term or contract work; the general trend for this indicator (higher education levels have a higher incidence) seems to be the reverse of what we see for the other indicators. These trends are very similar to those of Ontario. For involuntary part-time work, the higher education and lower education clusters are more pronounced for non-metro than for Ontario as a whole.
Ever wonder who is working involuntary part-time jobs in Ontario? Check out the table below to find out. This, and tables for our other indicators are available in the 2018 Precarious Employment Report available under the research tab of this website.
Table 1 Summary of Involuntary Part-Time Work Evaluators for Ontario (all census divisions) and Non-Metro Ontario.
|Indicator||Evaluator||All of Ontario||Non-Metro Ontario|
Involuntary Part-Time Work
Indicator linked to undesired outcome for the respondent; identifies workers who are working part-time jobs because they can not find full-time work.
|Level and percent||
Upward shift in number and percent during 2008 recession fall out.
Current slowing decline of both number and percent.
In 2016, 327 thousand workers employed in an involuntary part-time position, counting for 6% of paid employees.
|Percentage increase during 2008 recession fall out less drastic than for all of Ontario.
Current slowing decline of both number and percent.
In 2016, 50 thousand workers employed in an involuntary part-time position, counting for 8% of paid employees.
More females than males work involuntarily part-time jobs.
Females (9%) more likely than males (5%) to work an involuntary part-time job.
|More females than males work involuntary part-time jobs.
Females (11%) more likely than males (4%) to work an involuntary part time job.
More core labour force workers (aged 25-54) work involuntary part-time jobs than the other age categories.
Youth more than twice as likely to work an involuntary part-time job.
|More core labour force workers (aged 25-54) work involuntary part-time jobs than the other age categories.
Youth twice as likely to work an involuntary part-time job.
|Education||University graduates have a lower incidence of involuntary part-time work.||
The Community College Diploma category has the highest number working an involuntary part-time job (20,000 in 2016) and the percentage of this category follows the trend of the lower education categories.
Agriculture is commonly brought up as the example of seasonal work that is precarious. I think if it’s seasonal, people have that work but they have nothing to transition to or bridge them to the next season (Interviewee 10). Retail, tourism, and hospitality are also recognized by interviewees as providing almost uniquely, precarious employment. Manufacturing, on the other hand, is discussed as the industry once relied upon by rural Ontarians for stable employment. It is the industry most closely connected to a strong union presence and is impacted by placement agencies. Manufacturing overall is not considered to be a precarious industry. If the position in manufacturing is through a temporary agency or is through a contract position that’s what makes it precarious. From a wage perspective, generally, manufacturing is not considered to be precarious (Interviewee 2).
The skillset of middle-aged rural Ontario’s workforce has undoubtedly been shaped by the prevalence of manufacturing. With the reduction in manufacturing, interviewees highlight the mismatch between available skill and required skill in emergent areas. Interviewee 6 shares, in our community we don’t have that critical mass. A manufacturing job might need one person with that skillset. We actually have manufacturers right now who are turning away contracts because they can’t find people with the skillsets they need, or they can’t retain them. It’s not a great story line. This showcases the more urgent issue of skill mobilization and access to retraining. Interviewees were not shy to discuss the shortcomings of resources available in Ontario to precarious employees.
What does the future of the rural labour force look like when the role manufacturing will play changes?
The Basic Income Pilot in Ontario is well underway. The following article traces some stories from individuals who are experiencing the program right now.
There’s been some change in Ontario. Bill 148 means changes to the way some Ontarians experience precarious employment. Read more about the changes by clicking here. The long term impact of the changes is yet to be determined.
What we do know so far is the trend of low wage work relates directly to changes in the minimum wage. Since low wage work is described as 1.5 times the minimum wage, as minimum wage increases, so does the hourly rate which is considered low wage. If workers are paid above a low wage rate and there is no change in pay after a minimum wage increase, they could move to being considered a low wage worker. All five of Ontario’s regions follow a similar low wage trend as of 2000. There was a decrease in the percentage of paid workers with a low wage job in the early 2000s and an increase in years following the 2008 Economic Crisis. In 2012-2013, all five regions saw the highest share of low wage workers since 2000 with Southern Ontario reporting the highest share and Eastern Ontario reporting the lowest.
While at a hotel for a wedding I needed shower cap. I pressed 0 on the room phone and asked the front desk attendant to send one up. To my surprise, I received an automated message to the room a few moments later…it was a voice saying, “I’m here with a shower cap at your door”… I opened the door and there was a robot with my shower cap (a little guy named Archie, pictured below). He navigates the hotel by GPS and sensors bringing people what they ask for. Hotel porters are no more.
Kawartha Lakes, Centre Wellington, Norfolk (only slightly higher), Chatham-Kent and Collingwood all have more coupled families earning self-employment income than the provincial average. There are high instances of self-employment occurring in smaller towns and remote areas. These areas are more likely than their urban counterparts to also include on-farm self-employment.
Unpacking how self-employment plays into precarious work is an important part of this project!